Indian day laborers around fire Andrew Caballero-Reynolds/AFP/Getty Images

Volver a encender el crecimiento en las economías emergentes

HONG KONG – No es ningún secreto que las economías emergentes se enfrentan a graves problemas, mismos que socavaron su crecimiento que alguna vez fue explosivo y debilitaron sus perspectivas de desarrollo. La posibilidad de que estas economías regresen a la senda que las conduzca a la convergencia con las economías avanzadas dependerá, en gran medida, de la forma en la que ellas aborden un entorno económico cada vez más complejo.

Por supuesto, la senda de desarrollo de estas economías nunca fue simple o llana. Sin embargo, dicha senda se mostró relativamente clara durante la mayor parte del período posterior a la Segunda Guerra Mundial, incluso hasta hace unos diez años atrás. Los países necesitaban abrir sus economías a un ritmo razonable; tenían que aprovechar la demanda y las tecnologías a nivel mundial; debían especializarse en sectores con posibilidades de actividad comercial; tenían que ir tras una gran cantidad de inversión (alrededor del 30% del PIB); y debían promover la inversión extranjera directa en conjunción con disposiciones apropiadas para la transferencia de conocimientos.

A lo largo de este proceso, las economías emergentes han reconocido la importancia de permitir que los mecanismos de mercado funcionen, garantizando los derechos de propiedad, y preservando la estabilidad macroeconómica y financiera. Quizás lo más importante sea que ellas sabían que debían centrarse en la generación de empleo, sobre todo en las zonas urbanas y en los sectores modernizadores; y, de manera más amplia, debían centrarse en la inclusión e integración.

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