El desafío demográfico de las economías emergentes

WASHINGTON, DC – Se suele decir que la población que envejece es un desafío económico importante para el mundo desarrollado. Pero un nuevo informe del McKinsey Global Institute (MGI) revela que la demografía cambiante plantea una amenaza aún mayor para las perspectivas de crecimiento de muchas economías emergentes.

En los últimos 50 años, el crecimiento del 1,6% anual de la población fomentó una creciente fuerza laboral y un rápido incremento del PIB en muchas economías emergentes. El empleo cuando menos de duplicó en China y Sudáfrica, y como mínimo se triplicó en Brasil, India, Indonesia, México y Nigeria. En Arabia Saudita, por su parte, el empleo aumentó casi nueve meses.

Sin embargo, frente a la desaceleración del crecimiento de la población, se espera que el crecimiento anual promedio del empleo en las economías emergentes caiga de 1,9% a 0,4%. En términos absolutos, la caída superará la de las economías desarrolladas, donde se espera que el crecimiento anual del empleo caiga del 0,9% al 0,1% en los próximos años. En la mayoría de las economías, se estima que el empleo alcanzará su pico en los próximos 50 años; en China, la fuerza laboral podría reducirse un 20% en este período.

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.


Log in

  1. Patrick Kovarik/Getty Images

    The Summit of Climate Hopes

    Presidents, prime ministers, and policymakers gather in Paris today for the One Planet Summit. But with no senior US representative attending, is the 2015 Paris climate agreement still viable?

  2. Trump greets his supporters The Washington Post/Getty Images

    Populist Plutocracy and the Future of America

    • In the first year of his presidency, Donald Trump has consistently sold out the blue-collar, socially conservative whites who brought him to power, while pursuing policies to enrich his fellow plutocrats. 

    • Sooner or later, Trump's core supporters will wake up to this fact, so it is worth asking how far he might go to keep them on his side.
  3. Agents are bidding on at the auction of Leonardo da Vinci's 'Salvator Mundi' Eduardo Munoz Alvarez/Getty Images

    The Man Who Didn’t Save the World

    A Saudi prince has been revealed to be the buyer of Leonardo da Vinci's "Salvator Mundi," for which he spent $450.3 million. Had he given the money to the poor, as the subject of the painting instructed another rich man, he could have restored eyesight to nine million people, or enabled 13 million families to grow 50% more food.

  4.  An inside view of the 'AknRobotics' Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

    Two Myths About Automation

    While many people believe that technological progress and job destruction are accelerating dramatically, there is no evidence of either trend. In reality, total factor productivity, the best summary measure of the pace of technical change, has been stagnating since 2005 in the US and across the advanced-country world.

  5. A student shows a combo pictures of three dictators, Austrian born Hitler, Castro and Stalin with Viktor Orban Attila Kisbenedek/Getty Images

    The Hungarian Government’s Failed Campaign of Lies

    The Hungarian government has released the results of its "national consultation" on what it calls the "Soros Plan" to flood the country with Muslim migrants and refugees. But no such plan exists, only a taxpayer-funded propaganda campaign to help a corrupt administration deflect attention from its failure to fulfill Hungarians’ aspirations.

  6. Project Syndicate

    DEBATE: Should the Eurozone Impose Fiscal Union?

    French President Emmanuel Macron wants European leaders to appoint a eurozone finance minister as a way to ensure the single currency's long-term viability. But would it work, and, more fundamentally, is it necessary?

  7. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now