拥抱科学

从长远来看,经济发展主要来源于革新技术的发明与推广。印刷机的发明使科技革命成为可能,蒸气机的发明为工业革命创造了条件,而印度摆脱饥荒则主要依靠提高农业产出¾也就是所谓的“绿色革命”。计算机和互联网的普及带来了今天的全球化时代。因此,很多全球最困难问题的解决,至少是部分解决实际就有赖于新的技术,这些技术可以让许多原有的复杂问题迎刃而解。

比如非洲的贫困问题。人们做出了能够想到的所有解释,这些说法都一味强调非洲人自身的原因。但只要到非洲村庄里亲自走走,就不难发现问题更多地涉及在恶劣自然条件下人类的生存努力,而不是非洲所特有的所谓独特社会问题。

非洲农民每公顷土地的粮食产量小于等于世界其它地方农民的三分之一,这导致了饥荒泛滥,而沉重的疾病负担更让本来困难的境况雪上加霜。疟疾是非洲面临的独特挑战,这在很大程度上要归咎于非洲的蚊虫种类,它们把传播疟疾病毒当成了家常便饭。其它热带寄生虫病也给非洲造成了沉重的负担。如果再加上道路破旧、车辆稀少等诸如此类的实际困难,就演变成了经济上的隔离和闭塞。正因为如此,生存的挑战才变得异常严峻。

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