勝者のいない選挙

あれほどまでに劇的だった今回のワールドカップのように、サッカーの試合(少なくとも、勝者を出すべき試合)が引き分けになるときは、ペナルティーキックで解決しなければならない。ヒロイズムか、はたまた悲惨かを決めるPK戦の個人競争は、本来サッカーのような団体競技とは相容れないものであるが、手詰まりの状態を解決する方法として、必然と認められている。しかし、(理想的には 常に 、勝者を生み出すべき)選挙に関しては、このような装置は存在しない。

それにもかかわらず、最近行われた選挙のうち、かなりの数が、少なくとも行き詰まりに近い状態に終わっている。メキシコの大統領選は、そのうちの一番新しいものに過ぎない。数週間前、チェコ共和国の総選挙では、左右が下院に100席ずつ獲得し、解決の見込みが立たず、完全に行き詰まった。イタリアでは、他より一握り多く票を得たグループが、ボーナスとして下院の議席を1ダースもらえるという、不思議なルールがある。ロマーノ・プロディの政府は、上院において、危地に陥った状態で運営していかなければならない。

他にも、恐らく最も悪名高い2000年の合衆国大統領選を含む、最近の事例がある。なぜ、我々は突然、民主主義選挙における、こんなに多くのきわどい結果を体験しているのか?我々はそれをどう扱えば一番良いのか?そしてそれは、その選挙の結果である政府の合法性に、どんな影響をもたらすのだろうか?

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