没有胜利者的选举

当足球比赛¾至少是那些必须决出胜负的比赛¾在120分钟内踢成平局的时候,必须依靠互罚点球来决定胜负,本届世界杯让我们见识了点球大战的戏剧性。点球决胜靠的是单个球员之间的竞争,罚进点球的人成为英雄,罚失点球的人则陷入痛苦,虽然这与足球项目的集体性质有些格格不入,但却被公认为打破僵局不可或缺的方法。但是在理想状况下本应 总能 分出胜负的选举,却根本不存在这样的一种机制。

近年来为数不少的选举都以接近僵局的结果而告终。墨西哥总统大选不过是最近的一个例子。就在几周前,捷克共和国大选彻底走进了死胡同,左翼和右翼各获得了下议院的100个席位,谁都不知应当如何解决。在意大利,一条奇怪的规则规定比对方多得几票的群体可以额外得到下议院几十个议席的奖励。罗马诺·普罗迪(Romano Prodi)的政府必须在参议院表演尖刀上的舞蹈。

近期还有很多其他例子,其中最臭名昭著的也许就是2000年美国的总统选举。为什么突然之间,我们在民主选举中的结果变得如此相近?我们又该如何面对这样的情况?如此相近的结果对政府的合法性又将产生怎样的影响?

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