只有选举是不够的

没有政治民主就谈不上自由秩序,但今天的事实却常常让我们警醒:单纯的政治民主也并非自由秩序的保证。自由和公正的选举可能使想要“把以色列从中东版图上抹去”的伊朗总统登上宝座,也可能让嫌恶商人的委内瑞拉总统上台,虽然街上的人们对此欢呼雀跃,却导致身负人民福利重任的商人们仓惶出逃。在波兰举行的选举虽然危害较小,但却同样问题丛生,当选的少数族裔政府不计后果地维护本民族的成员利益,撕毁了投票前所做的一切合作诺言。

换句话讲,只有选举还远远不能实现世界民主。选举会带来非自由民主,甚至更坏的结果。因此必须把它们纳入更为复杂的制度框架,我把这称之为自由秩序。

自由秩序的首要特点是民主绝不能容忍那些蓄意破坏民主的人。德国等一些国家的法律明文规定:如果政党的纲领明显违反民主,那么国家有权对这些政党加以封杀。多年以来,这部法律在抑制极左和极右政党时都发挥了巨大的作用。显而易见,它有助于遏止任何向20世纪集权统治回归的企图。

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