Margaret Scott

El Salvador auf dem demokratischen Prüfstand

In seinen alten, radikalen Zeiten witzelte Ken Livingstone, der frühere Bürgermeister von London, in einem berühmten Ausspruch, dass Wahlen abgeschafft würden, wenn sie irgendetwas veränderten. Nun stellt sich heraus, dass Wahlen in Lateinamerika die Dinge tatsächlich umkrempeln. Der jüngste Beweis dafür: Mauricio Funes, der Bannerträger des FMLN – bis vor Kurzem eine marxistische Guerillabewegung –, hat sich jüngst bei der Präsidentschaftswahl in El Salvador durchgesetzt.

In einem Land, das, so lange man sich zurückerinnern kann, auf Biegen und Brechen von einer reaktionären Oligarchie regiert wurde, ist das bemerkenswert. Wenn der knappe Wahlsieg der salvadorianischen Linken friedlich angenommen wird, wie es bislang der Fall war, dann bedeutet dies, dass Lateinamerika wirklich große Fortschritte gemacht hat.

Ob diese tiefgreifende Änderung als Schlüsselmoment für die Festigung der Demokratie in El Salvador angesehen wird oder als der Anfang eines Abrutschens in die Instabilität, wird von Funes’ Fähigkeit abhängen, zwei komplexe und widersprüchliche Erfordernisse auszubalancieren: Er muss das gesamte politische Spektrum zur Mäßigung aufrufen und gleichzeitig den tiefgreifenden sozialen Strukturwandel umsetzen, den El Salvador so dringend braucht. Nahezu die Hälfte der Bevölkerung lebt unterhalb der Armutsgrenze, und die weit verbreitete Ungleichheit im Land ist die Ursache für seine turbulente politische Geschichte, die in die Höhe schnellende Kriminalitätsrate und die massive Auswanderung.

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