Сто лет теории относительности

СТОКГОЛЬМ – В этом году мы отмечаем столетие общей теории Альберта Эйнштейна, его искусной работы, которая изображает гравитацию как искривление пространства и времени. Тем не менее, как и бывает в науке, идеи Эйнштейна снабдили физиков таким же количеством вопросов, как и ответов.

Поиск решений, которые удовлетворяют уравнения Эйнштейна – то есть пространство-время, которое описывают кривизну нашей Вселенной – трудное дело и поэтому его теорию развивали очень долго. Ученые, проводящие ранние исследования и первые важные тесты были вынуждены использовать лишь приближения. Потребовались десятилетия для разработки методов для классификации и получения новых решений. Однако, сегодня многие решения известны и другие сложные проблемы, такие, как гравитационное поле двух сталкивающихся звезд, могут быть изучены с помощью компьютеров для выполнения численных расчетов.

Теория Эйнштейна не только описывает нашу вселенную, от Большого взрыва до черных дыр, но она также научила физиков актуальности геометрии и симметрии - уроки, которые распространяются от физики частиц до кристаллографии. Но, несмотря на сходства, которые теория Эйнштейна имеет с другими теориями в физике, она уникальна своим отказом соответствовать с квантовой механикой, теорией, которая объясняет доминирующее поведение веществ в атомных и субатомных исчислениях.

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