Dean Rohrer

La fracturada economía de Egipto

WASHINGTON, DC - Las aspiraciones políticas de los egipcios han dominado la vida pública del país desde la caída del presidente Hosni Mubarak, el año pasado. Por desgracia, a medida que se les da respuesta, la economía ha entrado en una fuerte caída, poniendo en peligro uno de los objetivos principales de la revolución: la mejora del nivel de vida y el bienestar de los egipcios.

De hecho, la retórica populista de los políticos egipcios amenaza con deshacer las reformas económicas emprendidas por el régimen de Mubarak. En 2004, el gobierno puso en marcha un importante programa de reformas bajo el ex primer ministro Ahmed Nazif. Su objetivo era eliminar los obstáculos burocráticos para el crecimiento mediante la reestructuración del sector financiero, la simplificación de los reglamentos comerciales, la liberalización del comercio exterior, y la reducción el papel del estado en la economía.

Las reformas de 2004, con su eliminación de las restricciones al acceso a las divisas y la reducción de los aranceles de importación, poco a poco mejoraron el clima de negocios e inversiones. Junto con las favorables condiciones internacionales, la tasa de crecimiento del PIB anual de Egipto aumentó al 7,2% en 2008, frente al 4,1% en 2004, y se mantuvo en un 5% en el período 2009-2010, a pesar de la recesión mundial. Las nuevas medidas también contribuyeron a atraer grandes flujos de capital e inversión extranjera directa, factores de un aumento notable de las reservas de divisas, de $14,8 mil millones en 2004 a más de $36 mil millones a finales de 2010.

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