Dean Rohrer

Ägyptens zerrüttete Wirtschaft

WASHINGTON, DC – Seit dem Sturz des ägyptischen Präsidenten Husni Mubarak im letzten Jahr wurde das öffentliche Leben des Landes hauptsächlich von den politischen Zielen der Ägypter bestimmt. Leider ist währenddessen die Wirtschaft massiv eingebrochen, was eines der Hauptziele der Revolution behindert, nämlich die Verbesserung des Lebensstandards und der sozialen Sicherung der Ägypter.

Dies geht so weit, dass durch die populistische Rhetorik ägyptischer Politiker die Wirtschaftsreformen des Mubarak-Regimes gefährdet werden. 2004 wurde unter dem ehemaligen Premierminister Ahmed Nazif ein großes Reformprogramm gestartet. Es zielte darauf ab, durch die Restrukturierung des Finanzsektors, die Anpassung der Unternehmensvorschriften, die Liberalisierung des Außenhandels und die Beschränkung der wirtschaftlichen Zuständigkeiten der Regierung bürokratische Hindernisse für das Wachstum zu beseitigen.

Die Reformen von 2004 mit ihrem Abbau von Zugriffseinschränkungen auf Fremdwährungen und der Reduzierung von Importsteuern führten mit der Zeit zu einer Verbesserung des Unternehmens- und Investitionsklimas. Gemeinsam mit vorteilhaften internationalen Bedingungen stieg die jährliche BIP-Wachstumsrate Ägyptens von 4,1% im Jahr 2004 auf 7,2% im Jahr 2008 und blieb 2009-2010 trotz der globalen Rezession bei 5%. Die neuem Maßnahmen haben auch dazu beigetragen, große Kapitalzuflüsse und ausländische Direktinvestitionen anzuziehen, was zu einer dramatischen Steigerung der Reserven ausländischer Währungen von 14,8 Milliarden USD 2004 auf über 36 Milliarden Ende 2010 führte.

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