Dean Rohrer

埃及的破败经济

华盛顿—自从穆巴拉克去年倒台以来,政治渴望就主导着埃及人民的公共生活。不幸的是,在政治渴望被满足的同时,埃及经济却步入了深度衰退,这也使得革命目标之一即改善埃及人民的生活水平和福利落了空。

事实上,埃及政客的民粹主义论调已成为自穆巴拉克时代就开始的经济改革的威胁。2004年,前总理那齐夫(Ahmed Nazif)开始了一项重大改革计划。该计划的目标通过金融部门改革、疏通商业法规、开放对外贸易以及减弱政府在经济中所扮演的作用来是消除增长中的官僚主义约束。

2004年的改革消除了外汇管制、降低了进口关税,逐渐地改善了商业和投资环境。在有利国际条件的助推下,埃及年GDP增长率从2004年的4.1%提高到2008年的7.2%,2009—2010年全球衰退期间也维持在5%。这些新措施还有助于吸引大量资本流入和外国直接投资,从而使埃及外汇储备大幅增加,从2004年的148亿美元提高到2010年末的360亿美元。

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