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Una oportunidad para Egipto y el FMI

LAGUNA BEACH – Las autoridades egipcias y los representantes del Fondo Monetario Internacional llegaron a un acuerdo. Si el mes que viene la Junta del FMI lo aprueba, Egipto recibirá un préstamo de 12 000 millones de dólares para apoyar la implementación de reformas económicas. El objetivo principal del programa trienal es liberar el considerable potencial de Egipto, estimular el crecimiento y la creación de empleo, y resolver la escasez de divisas extranjeras. Pero el acuerdo también representa una importante oportunidad para mejorar las relaciones entre Egipto y el FMI, algo que traería amplios beneficios a ambas partes.

La relación de Egipto con el FMI siempre fue tormentosa. El ejemplo más notorio fue en 1977, cuando Egipto redujo los subsidios a los alimentos a cambio de financiación del FMI y estallaron disturbios en las principales ciudades egipcias, con un saldo de casi 80 muertos y cientos de heridos. Hubo que cancelar el acuerdo y reinstaurar los subsidios. Desde entonces, hasta 2012, se discutieron varios acuerdos más, pero la mayoría fracasaron o fueron abandonados.

En este contexto, no es raro que muchos egipcios vean al FMI como un organismo autoritario que siempre quiere imponer su voluntad a los países sin prestar suficiente atención a la situación local. Algunos incluso lo ven como una herramienta de dominación occidental. Esta imagen ha llevado a anteriores gobiernos egipcios no sólo a rehuir el apoyo del FMI, sino también a postergar las auditorías económicas anuales exigidas por su estatuto.

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