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Une opportunité pour l’Égypte et le FMI

LAGUNA BEACH – Les autorités égyptiennes et le Fonds monétaire international sont parvenus à un accord. Le mois prochain, si le conseil d’administration du FMI l’accepte, l’Égypte se verra octroyer un prêt de 12 milliards $ en soutien à la mise en œuvre de réformes économiques. Le principal objectif de ce programme sur trois ans consistera à permettre au formidable potentiel de l’Égypte de s’exprimer, à dynamiser la croissance et la création d’emplois, ainsi qu’à remédier aux pénuries de devises. Mais cet accord représente également une opportunité majeure d’amélioration des relations entre l’Égypte et le FMI – une évolution qui bénéficierait considérablement aux deux camps.

Les relations entre le FMI et l’Égypte sont depuis longtemps mouvementées. C’est ce qu’illustrent notamment les événements de 1977, lorsque l’Égypte décide de restreindre les subventions alimentaires en échange d’un financement de la part du FMI, ce qui provoquera des émeutes dans plusieurs grandes villes d’Égypte, pour un bilan de près de 80 morts et plusieurs centaines de blessés. L’accord sera finalement résilié, et les subventions rétablies. Plusieurs autres accords ont depuis fait l’objet de discussions, notamment en 2012, mais la plupart n’ont pas été mis en œuvre comme prévu, ou ont été abandonnés.

Dans ce contexte, il n’est pas surprenant que de nombreux Égyptiens considèrent le FMI comme une organisation impérieuse, déterminée à imposer sa volonté aux États sans prendre suffisamment en considération les réalités locales. Certains y voient même un outil de la domination occidentale. Cette perception a non seulement conduit les précédents gouvernements égyptiens à se passer du soutien du FMI, mais également à reporter les consultations économiques annuelles qu’exigent les statuts du Fonds.

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