King Salman Egypt Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

Египет на продажу

КАИР – Результатом визита короля Саудовской Аравии Салмана в Египет на прошлой неделе стали 22 соглашения, в том числе нефтяная сделка стоимостью $22 млрд, способная поддержать умирающую египетскую экономику. Однако эта щедрая помощь имеет свою цену: Египту пришлось отдать два острова в Красном море, уступленные ему Саудовской Аравией ещё в 1950 году. Этот шаг продемонстрировал лживость утверждений египетского руководства, будто их страна остаётся крупной региональной державой. Действительно, Египет не способен справиться даже с внутренними проблемами, возникающими из-за быстрого роста населения и его зависимости от неподъёмных для бюджета субсидий. Джихадисты пользуются данной ситуацией с большим успехом. Как же страна дошла до этой точки?

В 1807 году, когда Мухаммед Али разгромил британцев, Египет стал первой арабской страной, де-факто получившей независимость. Однако внук Али, Исмаил, растерял эту независимость из-за своего расточительства; он поставил страну в зависимость от внешней финансовой помощи, которая сохраняется до сих пор.

Сначала, в 1875 году, Исмаилу пришлось продать долю Египета в Суэцком канале, чтобы покрыть дефицит бюджета. Когда выяснилось, что этого не хватает для решения бюджетных проблем, европейские кредиторы учредили специальный комитет, призванный гарантировать выплаты. К 1877 году более 60% доходов Египта уходило на обслуживание долга. В 1882 году британцы взяли страну под контроль ради защиты своих инвестиций.

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