Paul Lachine

Las guerras árabes de religión

MADRID – En todo el mundo árabe está produciéndose ahora una lucha entre dos importantes fuerzas históricas: la religión y el laicismo. Es el tipo de batalla entre César y Dios que Europa tardó siglos en dilucidar. El futuro del Oriente Medio árabe se decidirá en la lucha entre los insurgentes suníes de Siria, apoyados en toda la región por los wahabíes saudíes, patrocinadores del fundamentalismo religioso, y su régimen laico Baas, entre el fundamentalista Hamás y la laica OLP en Palestina y entre la joven oposición laica de Egipto, forjada en las protestas de la plaza Tahrir, y los Hermanos Musulmanes y los radicales salafistas.

Hasta ahora, las rebeliones árabes han confirmado la tesis de que, dada la estructura de la mayoría de las sociedades árabes, el derrocamiento de las autocracias laicas significa automáticamente abrir la puerta a las democracias islámicas. Ya vimos el desarrollo de esa dinámica en Argelia, con la victoria a comienzos del decenio de 1990 del Frente Islámico de Salvación en la primera vuelta de unas elecciones parlamentarias (que provocó la anulación de la segunda vuelta), la victoria electoral de Hamás en Palestina en 2006 y, más recientemente, el ascenso democrático al poder de los Hermanos Musulmanes en Egipto.

Tanto en Argelia como en Egipto, las fuerzas laicas no pudieron frenar el ascenso político del islam, que sólo se pudo interrumpir con la toma del poder por parte del ejército. El golpe militar argelino dio paso posteriormente a una sangrienta guerra civil que se cobró unas 200.000 vidas.

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