Paul Lachine

As guerras de religião árabes

MADRID – Em todo o mundo árabe, desenrola-se actualmente uma luta entre duas grandes forças históricas, religião e laicismo. Trata-se de uma batalha como a de César e Deus, que a Europa levou séculos a resolver. O futuro do Médio Oriente árabe será decidido pela luta entre rebeldes sunitas da Síria, apoiados em toda a região por wahhabitas sauditas - os patronos do fundamentalismo religioso - e o regime laico Baath do país; entre o Hamas fundamentalista e a OLP laica, na Palestina; e entre a jovem oposição laica do Egipto, que se desenvolveu durante os protestos da Praça Tahrir, e a Irmandade Muçulmana e os salafistas radicais.

Até ao momento, as revoltas árabes justificaram o pressuposto de que, tendo em conta a estrutura da maioria das sociedades árabes, derrubar as autocracias laicas significa, inevitavelmente, abrir as portas às democracias islâmicas. Vimos os efeitos que essa dinâmica produziu na Argélia, no início da década de 1990, com a vitória, na primeira volta, da Frente Islâmica de Salvação nas eleições parlamentares (facto que levou ao cancelamento da segunda volta); com a vitória eleitoral do Hamas na Palestina, em 2006 e, mais recentemente, com a ascensão democrática ao poder no Egipto por parte da Irmandade Muçulmana.

Tanto na Argélia como no Egipto, as forças laicas não conseguiram conter a ascensão do islamismo político, que apenas um golpe militar poderia suspender. O golpe militar ocorrido na Argélia acabou por dar início a uma guerra civil sangrenta, que se estima ter ceifado mais de 200 mil vidas.

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