El efecto Snowden

MADRID – El proceso de filtración de información clasificada por parte del ex empleado de la Agencia Nacional de Seguridad americana, Edward Snowden, ha provocado acalorados debates acerca de la privacidad y el derecho internacional que, lamentablemente, han eclipsado la dimensión geoestratégica de sus acciones. En realidad, las revelaciones de Snowden sobre los programas de vigilancia de EE.UU. y su actual lucha para evitar la extradición, revelan mucho sobre la impronta de Barack Obama en las relaciones exteriores de EE.UU.

En el mundo entero, Obama ha generado más expectativas que cualquier otro presidente estadounidense en la memoria reciente. Sin embargo, ha demostrado que su interés principal, si no exclusivo, se centra en asuntos internos lo que conduce a una política exterior de reacción. El asunto Snowden actúa de revelador de este enunciado en tres áreas: las relaciones de EE.UU. y Rusia, la influencia de EE.UU. en América del Sur y las relaciones de EE.UU. con Europa.

La gestión del asunto por Moscú es indicativa de la tensión existente en las relaciones entre EE.UU. y Rusia. A raíz del fracaso del "reset" de las relaciones bilaterales, Rusia ha priorizado mantener su posición en el mundo en contraposición a EE.UU., provocando que muchos analistas recuperen, a ambos lados del atlántico, el vocabulario de la Guerra Fría. Más importante aún, el Kremlin utiliza la relación con EE.UU. para consolidar su posición interna. EE.UU. ha caído en esta trampa, proporcionando al presidente Vladimir Putin argumentos para reforzar su política.

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