Der Snowden-Effekt

MADRID – Die fortgesetzten Enthüllungen geheimer Informationen durch Edward Snowden, den früheren Mitarbeiter eines Unternehmens im Auftrag der amerikanischen Sicherheitsbehörde US National Security Agency, hat eine hitzige Debatte über Datenschutz und Völkerrecht ausgelöst, die unglücklicherweise die geostrategische Dimension seiner Aktionen überschattet. Tatsächlich offenbaren Snowdens Enthüllungen über die amerikanischen Überwachungsprogramme und sein eigener anhaltender Kampf zur Vermeidung einer Auslieferung einiges über Präsident Barack Obamas Einstellung zu Fragen der Geheimhaltung in den amerikanischen Auslandsbeziehungen.  

Mehr als jeder andere amerikanische Präsident der jüngeren Vergangenheit weckte Obama zu Beginn seiner Amtszeit weltweit Erwartungen. Doch er erwies sich hauptsächlich, wenn nicht gar ausschließlich, an innenpolitischen Themen interessiert. Die Folge war eine auf Ereignisse reagierende Außenpolitik. Die Affäre Snowden unterstreicht deren drei Elemente: Die Beziehungen zwischen den USA und Russland, der Einfluss der USA in Südamerika und die Beziehungen der Vereinigten Staaten zu Europa.  

Der Umgang des Kremls mit der Affäre ist bezeichnend für den angespannten Zustand des Verhältnisses zwischen den USA und Russland. Nach dem verunglückten „Neustart“ der bilateralen Beziehungen der beiden Länder ist Russland erpicht, seine globale Position als Gegenpol zu den USA aufrechtzuerhalten, wodurch viele Menschen auf beiden Seiten wieder in eine Mentalität des Kalten Krieges zurückfallen. Die USA tappten in diese Falle und bescheren damit Präsident Wladimir Putin endlos viele Möglichkeiten, politisch Punkte zu sammeln und seine innenpolitische Position zu festigen.

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