Die Lehre wirtschaftlicher Dynamik

NEW YORK – Unternehmensführer behaupten oft, die wachsende Ausbildungsschere – der Unterschied zwischen dem, was junge Menschen lernen, und den Fähigkeiten, die der Arbeitsmarkt fordert – sei ein Hauptgrund für hohe Arbeitslosigkeit und langsames Wachstum in vielen Ländern. Die Regierungen scheinen überzeugt zu sein, der beste Weg zum Schließen dieser Schere bestehe darin, die Anzahl der Studenten mit Abschlüssen in den Bereichen Wissenschaft, Technik, Ingenieurswesen und Mathematik (STEM) zu steigern. Haben sie recht?

Die kurze Antwort ist nein. Tatsächlich sind die beiden Hauptargumente dafür, dass mangelhafte Ausbildung an schwacher Wirtschaftsleistung schuld sei, bestenfalls schwach.

Das erste Argument lautet, der Mangel an passend ausgebildeten Arbeitnehmern würde Unternehmen davon abhalten, in modernere Ausrüstung zu investieren. Aber normalerweise funktioniert wirtschaftliche Entwicklung nicht so. Statt dessen investieren Unternehmen, und entweder reagieren Arbeitnehmer dann auf die Möglichkeit höherer Löhne, indem sie sich die erforderlichen Fähigkeiten (auf ihre eigenen Kosten) aneignen, oder die Unternehmen bilden ihre aktuellen und zukünftigen Angestellten selbst aus.

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