经济学家的世界新秩序

大多数学院派经济学理论都建立在20世纪初英国经济学家阿尔弗雷德·马歇尔提出的概念上。他曾说过,“自然不允许跃进”。然而我们经济学家却发现自己越来越被我们构建出来解释世界的新马歇尔主义的明显不足所困扰。

这套理论的核心成见是,我们应该相信市场能解决我们交给它的问题;我们不应该期望小变化(或甚至大变化)能产生巨大的效果。一项技术的进步会给有技术的人和受过教育的人带来更高的收入,也会诱使其他人也来掌握技术和受教育,从而恢复平衡,避免不平等过度发展。

因此,一个劳动生产力低的国家会吸引外国直接投资,接着资金和劳动力比率的上升会提高生产力。运用马歇尔的理论,不论你看向何处,都会看到经济平衡将一切拖回原状,补偿和削弱所有震动与干扰的影响。

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