Economist in a library Sergei Savostyanov/Getty Images

Экономика с гуманитарным лицом

ЧИКАГО – В 2006 году среди преподавателей американских университетов был проведён опрос: считаете ли вы, что лучше обладать знаниями из множества областей науки или только из одной. С энтузиазмом к идее междисциплинарного обучения отнеслись 79% преподавателей психологии, 73% социологов и 68% историков. Кто продемонстрировал наименьший энтузиазм? Экономисты. Только 42% опрошенных экономистов сказали, что согласны с необходимостью понимания мира через призму разных дисциплин. Как резко подытожил один эксперт: «Экономисты реально думают, что им совершенно нечему учиться у других».

На самом же деле, экономисты могли бы получить огромную пользу, если бы расширили свой кругозор. Экономика имеет дело с людьми, поэтому она может многому научиться у гуманитарных наук. И дело не только в том, что экономические модели могли бы стать реалистичней, а экономические прогнозы – точнее; сама экономическая политика могла бы стать более эффективной и справедливой.

Заходит ли речь о способах стимулирования экономического роста в странах с различной культурой, или о моральных вопросах, возникающих, когда университеты преследуют собственные интересы в ущерб интересам студентов, или о глубоко личных вопросах, касающихся здоровья, брака и семьи, всегда в этих случаях необходимо учитывать экономические соображения, но их недостаточно. Если мы будем ограничиваться исключительно этими соображениями, политические решения окажутся слабыми, а пострадают от этого люди.

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