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诺贝尔经济学奖与社会民主

牛津—在现代社会管理精英中,只有经济学家有诺贝尔奖可得,刚刚宣布的最新获奖者是奥利佛·哈特(Oliver Hart)和班特·霍尔斯特罗姆(Bengt Holmström)。不管经济学家获得如此独特地位的原因何在,诺贝尔奖光环可以也确实常常让有害于公共利益——比如推动不平等和增加造成金融危机的可能性——的政策获得信誉。

但经济学并非一家独大。一种不同的世界观将大约30%的GDP——用于就业、医疗、教育和退休金——配置给了最发达国家。这一关于应该如何管理社会的观点——社会民主不但是一种政治方向,它也是一种治国之道。

标准经济学假设社会由自利个体组成,他们在市场中交易,他们的选择通过“看不见的手”放大成一种效率状态(efficient state)。但这一信条在理论和实践中都不太稳固:其前提条件并不现实,其所支持的模式自相矛盾,其产生的预测常常出错。

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