Paul Lachine

Ekonomika pro papoušky

BERKELEY – Říká se, že britský ekonom počátku 19. století J. R. McCulloch je autorem starého vtipu, podle něhož stačí papouškovi k tomu, aby se stal učeným politickým ekonomem, naučit se dvě slova: „nabídka a poptávka“, „nabídka a poptávka“. Šéf amerického Federálního rezervního systému Ben Bernanke minulý týden prohlásil, že McCullochovu ekonomii – ekonomii nabídky a poptávky – finanční krize v žádném případě nezdiskreditovala a že je stále mimořádně užitečná.

S Bernankeho názorem lze těžko nesouhlasit: ekonomie by byla užitečná, kdyby byli ekonomové opravdu jako McCullochovi papoušci – tedy kdyby se skutečně dívali na nabídku a poptávku. Myslím si však, že ekonomii do značné míry zdiskreditovala do očí bijící neschopnost mnoha ekonomů být stejně chytří, jako byli McCullochovi papoušci.

Vezměme si například tvrzení – v USA dnes velmi rozšířené –, že další vládní pokusy o zmírnění nezaměstnanosti ztroskotají, protože současná vysoká nezaměstnanost v Americe je „strukturální“: tedy že selhání ekonomických výpočtů zanechalo v zemi nesprávné produktivní zdroje k uspokojení poptávky domácností a firem. Zastánci tohoto názoru tvrdí, že problémem není ani tak nedostatek agregátní poptávky jako spíše nedostatek produktivní nabídky.

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