Hand rail with Refugees Welcome sticker on it

Ökonomen auf der Flüchtlingsschiene

NEW HAVEN – Die heutige globale Flüchtlingskrise ruft Erinnerungen an die Zeit direkt nach den Zweiten Weltkrieg wach. Eine Schätzung von damals sprach von über 40 Millionen Flüchtlingen allein in Europa. Diese „vertriebenen Personen“, wie sie damals genannt wurden, mussten ihre Heimat aufgrund von Gewalt, Zwangsumsiedelung, Verfolgung und der Zerstörung von Eigentum und Infrastruktur verlassen.

Aufgrund dieser schlimmen Lage nach dem Krieg wurde im Jahr 1950 das Hohe Kommissariat für Flüchtlinge der Vereinten Nationen (UNHCR) eingeführt, das zunächst nur vorübergehend für drei Jahre den Schutz Vertriebener gewährleisten sollte. Aber das Problem wurde nie ganz gelöst. Nicht nur gibt es das UNHCR immer noch, sondern es sorgt auch noch für alarmierende Nachrichten.

In seinem Bericht zur Jahresmitte 2015 beziffert das Büro die Anzahl der „gewaltsam vertriebenen“ Menschen in aller Welt zum Jahresende 2014 auf 59,5 Millionen, darunter 19,5 Millionen ins Ausland Vertriebene, die als echte Flüchtlinge definiert werden. Einige Länder – Afghanistan, Aserbaidschan, Kolumbien, die Zentralafrikanische Republik, die Demokratische Republik Kongo, der Irak, Myanmar, Nigeria, Pakistan, Somalia, der Südsudan, der Sudan, Syrien und die Ukraine – waren Ende 2014 jeweils für über eine halbe Million gewaltsam vertriebene Menschen verantwortlich. Und seitdem soll sich die Gesamtanzahl noch vergrößert haben.

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