Hand rail with Refugees Welcome sticker on it

Les économistes et la crise des réfugiés

NEW HAVEN – La crise mondiale des réfugiés à laquelle on assiste aujourd'hui n'est pas sans rappeler celle qui a suivi la Deuxième Guerre mondiale. Selon une estimation de cette époque, l'Europe à elle seule en comptait plus de 40 millions. Ces "personnes déplacées", ainsi qu'on les appelait alors, étaient contraintes de fuir en raison de violences, de déplacements forcés, de persécutions, de destructions de biens et d'infrastructures.

La situation catastrophique de l'après-guerre en matière de réfugiés a conduit en 1950 à la création du Haut commissariat des Nations unies pour les réfugiés (HCR) dont le mandat – protéger les personnes déplacées pendant une période de trois ans – ne devait être que temporaire. Mais le problème des réfugiés n'a jamais disparu, bien au contraire ; et non seulement le Haut commissaire est toujours là, mais il sonne l'alarme.

Dans son rapport publié courant 2015, le HCR estime à 59,5 millions le nombre de personnes "déplacées de force" à travers le monde à la fin de 2014, il s'agit notamment des personnes qui ont dû quitter leur pays (celles définies comme de véritables réfugiés). Selon ce rapport, le nombre de personnes déplacées de force dépassait le demi-million en Afghanistan, en Azerbaïdjan, en Birmanie, en Colombie, en Irak, au Nigéria, au Pakistan, en République centrafricaine, en République démocratique du Congo, en Syrie, en Somalie, au Soudan, au Soudan du Sud et en Ukraine à la fin de 2014 - et ce chiffre a dû augmenter substantiellement depuis.

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