Пакт роста для Америки

НЬЮ-ЙОРК – В Америке, в очередной раз, власть разделилась – демократы держат Белый дом, а республиканцы контролируют обе палаты Конгресса. Но это не означает, что последние два года президентства Барака Обамы обречены стать временем взаимных обвинений и политического тупика.

Избиратели желают перемен, они боятся, что рост экономики будет по-прежнему слишком медленным. Это привело республиканцев к победе на прошедших на этой неделе промежуточных выборах в Конгресс, и это, без сомнения, стимулирует дискуссию о новых политических решениях, способных повысить рост экономики, занятость и доходы. Конечно, исторический опыт Америки позволяет пессимистически оценить способность двух партий к компромиссу. Однако, как показала недавно Мексика, где три крупнейшие партии договорились о рыночно-ориентированном «Пакте ради Мексики», даже заклятые политические противники могут преодолеть взаимное недоверие ради необходимых реформ.

Список потенциальных политических решений, которые могут принести пользу США – либерализация торговли, всесторонняя реформа регулирования, иммиграционная реформа, реформа образования и так далее – очень длинный. Но есть две политические инициативы, которые особенно подходят для подобного «Пакта ради Америки»: федеральное финансирование инфраструктурных проектов и реформа корпоративного налогообложения. Реализация этих двух реформ даст победу каждой партии – и обеим одновременно.

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