Un pacte de croissance pour l’Amérique

NEW YORK – Une fois de plus, les États-Unis vont devoir avancer avec un gouvernement divisé, les Démocrates occupant la Maison Blanche, et les Républicains contrôlant les deux chambres du Congrès. Pour autant, ce constat ne doit pas nécessairement être synonyme de deux dernières années de présidence Obama définies par l’impasse et les récriminations mutuelles.

Le désir de changement dont fait preuve l’électorat, ainsi que sa crainte de voir perdurer la lenteur de la croissance – aspects à l’origine de la victoire des Républicains lors des élections du Congrès qui ont eu lieu cette semaine à mi-mandat – sont voués à provoquer le débat autour de nouvelles options politiques susceptibles de promouvoir la croissance, l’emploi, et les revenus. Bien entendu, l’expérience de l’Amérique face aux épisodes de division de son gouvernement a tendance à engendrer le pessimisme quant à la capacité des deux camps à aboutir à des compromis ; pour autant, comme l’a récemment démontré le Mexique lorsque ses trois principaux partis se sont entendus sur un « Pacte pour le Mexique » axé sur le marché, il arrive que des partis politiques pourtant fermement opposés parviennent à surmonter leurs désaccords afin de promouvoir des réformes nécessaires.

La liste est longue lorsqu’il s’agit d’évoquer les mesures politiques potentiellement bénéfiques pour les États-Unis – libéralisation du commerce, réforme réglementaire complète, ou encore réformes sur l’immigration et l’éducation, pour n’en citer que quelques-unes. Mais seulement deux politiques se révèlent particulièrement prometteuses s’agissant de ce que l’on pourrait appeler un « Pacte pour l’Amérique » : dépenses fédérales en infrastructures d’une part, et réforme de la taxation des entreprises d’autre part. La mise en œuvre de ces réformes bénéficierait en effet à chacun des deux camps.

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