Russian president Putin in Yekaterinburg Mikhail Svetlov/Getty Images

Почему антилиберальные демократы популярны?

БРЮССЕЛЬ – Подъём «антилиберальной демократии» в Европе является одной из самых губительных тенденций нашего времени. Подобные режимы обычно опираются на лидера, который сосредоточил власть, попирая – а в некоторых случаях уничтожая – систему институциональных сдержек и противовесов. Владимир Путин в России, Реджеп Тайип Эрдоган в Турции и Виктор Орбан в Венгрии представляют собой три наиболее явные примера этого феномена. Но особенно примечательно – и опасно – то, как эти режимы умудряются сохранять народную поддержку.

Контроль над традиционной прессой – телевидением, радио и газетами, – конечно, является причиной сохранения этими режимами электорального большинства. Но манипуляции или даже прямой контроль над СМИ не могут объяснить неувядающей популярности этих антилиберальных лидеров, о которой можно судить по опросам общественного мнения.

Главная причина политического успеха этих лидеров в том, что их режимы, вопреки своему антизападному позиционированию, следуют принципам так называемого «Вашингтонского консенсуса», который предписывает ответственную макроэкономическую политику и открытость рынков.

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