Sustainable growth model city Amir Jina/Flickr

El dilema del crecimiento

BERKELEY – El mundo se enfrenta a un gran dilema. Para sostener el desarrollo se necesita un crecimiento económico veloz como el de los últimos 50 años, pero ahora sabemos que esto puede traer consecuencias graves, sobre todo para el medio ambiente. ¿Cómo equilibrar la necesidad de crecimiento y desarrollo con la de garantizar sostenibilidad?

El enorme aumento del ingreso per cápita de los últimos 20 años sacó de la pobreza extrema a más de mil millones de personas. En los países en desarrollo, la expectativa de vida aumentó 20 años desde mediados de los setenta, y la tasa de analfabetismo adulto cayó casi a la mitad en los últimos 30 años.

Pero este veloz crecimiento generó grandes presiones sobre el medio ambiente y fue acompañado por un aumento en la desigualdad de ingresos, que en muchos países ya alcanzó máximos históricos (aunque se redujo entre países). Esto lleva a pensar que un crecimiento más lento sería mejor para el mundo.

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