Sustainable growth model city Amir Jina/Flickr

مُعضِلة النمو

بيركلي ــ إن العالم يواجه معضِلة كبرى. ففي حين يشكل النمو الاقتصادي السريع، مثل ذلك الذي تحقق على مدى السنوات الخمسين الماضية، أهمية بالغة لدعم التنمية، نعمل الآن أيضاً أنه من الممكن أن يخلف عواقب سلبية خطيرة، وخاصة بالنسبة للبيئة. كيف نوازن إذن بين ضرورات النمو والتنمية والحاجة إلى ضمان الاستدامة؟

كان النمو غير المسبوق الذي سجله نصيب الفرد في الدخل خلال السنوات العشرين الأخيرة سبباً في انتشال أكثر من مليار إنسان من براثن الفقر المدقع. وفي البلدان النامية، ازداد متوسط العمر المتوقع بنحو عشرين عاماً منذ منتصف سبعينيات القرن العشرين، وانخفض معدل الأمية بين البالغين إلى النصف تقريباً في السنوات الثلاثين الأخيرة.

ولكن النمو الاقتصادي السريع فرض ضغوطاً هائلة على البيئة، وكان مصحوباً فضلاً عن ذلك باتساع فجوة التفاوت في الدخول، والذي بلغ مستويات تاريخية من الارتفاع داخل العديد من البلدان (وإن كان التفاوت بين البلدان قد انخفض). وعلى هذا، فبوسعنا أن نزعم أن النمو الأبطأ قد يحمل الخير للعالم.

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