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Cómo inspirar el crecimiento económico

NEW HAVEN – En el discurso de inauguración de su mandato, en lo peor de la Gran Depresión, el presidente de los Estados Unidos, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, pronunció una frase que se volvería famosa: “A lo único que debemos temer es al temor mismo”. Luego agregó, en alusión al Libro del Éxodo: “No sufrimos una plaga de langostas”. No había ninguna causa tangible para la depresión; en marzo de 1933, el problema estaba en la mente de las personas.

Lo mismo puede decirse hoy, siete años después de la crisis financiera global de 2008, sobre los muchos puntos débiles que subsisten en la economía mundial. El temor hace que los individuos restrinjan sus gastos y las empresas retengan inversiones; el resultado es un debilitamiento de la economía que confirma los temores y lleva a una mayor restricción del gasto. La caída se profundiza y se afirma un círculo vicioso de desesperanza. Aunque la crisis financiera de 2008 ya pasó, seguimos atrapados en el ciclo emocional que puso en marcha.

Es un poco como el miedo escénico. La ansiedad causada por el temor a no dar una buena actuación puede provocar vacilación o pérdida de inspiración; si luego ese temor se traslada a la realidad, la ansiedad se agrava y la actuación se perjudica. Una vez iniciado el círculo, es muy difícil detenerlo.

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