Margaret Scott

Crise économique et intégration régionale

PRINCETON – Tout le monde sait désormais que nous traversons la pire crise économique depuis les années 1930. Les ripostes protectionnistes ont un air tristement familier�: manifestations contre les travailleurs étrangers, revendications en faveur d’un commerce protégé, et nationalisme financier visant à restreindre le mouvement de capitaux transfrontalier.

Dans les années 1930, cependant, le nationalisme économique n’était pas le seul spectacle à l’affiche. L’intégration régionale semblait pour beaucoup la réponse à la dépression.

Mais le type d’intégration survenant en temps de crise est souvent destructeur. Les exemples les plus sinistres du régionalisme des années 1930 sont l’Allemagne et le Japon, pour lesquels intégration ne signifiait rien moins qu’étendre leur pouvoir aux régions voisines vulnérables. Ces dernières étaient soumises à une dépendance commerciale et financière sous couvert de Grosswirtschaftsraum en Allemagne ou de son équivalent japonais «�Sphère de coprospérité de la grande Asie Orientale�». Suite aux horreurs des années 1930, les concepts tels que «�Grande Asie orientale�» sont toujours grandement suspectés.

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