Margaret Scott

الأزمة الاقتصادية والتكامل الإقليمي

برينستون ـ إن الجميع باتوا يدركون الآن أننا نمر بأسوأ أزمة اقتصادية منذ ثلاثينيات القرن العشرين. ومن المحزن أن الاستجابات النزاعة إلى الحماية أصبحت من الأمور المعتادة: الاحتجاجات ضد العمال الأجانب، والمطالبة بالحماية التجارية، والقومية المالية التي تسعى إلى تقييد تدفق رؤوس الأموال عبر الحدود الوطنية.

إلا أن القومية الاقتصادية في الثلاثينيات لم تكن العنصر الوحيد المؤثر. فقد بدأ العديد من الناس آنذاك في التفكير في التكامل الإقليمي كوسيلة لمواجهة الكساد.

ولكن ذلك النوع من التكامل الذي يحدث في أوقات الأزمات الاقتصادية كثيراً ما يكون مدمراً. كانت ألمانيا واليابان منشأ أغلب النسخ غير الجذابة من إقليمية الثلاثينيات، وكانت تلك النسخ بمثابة امتداد عملي لتسلط هذين البلدين على البلدان المجاورة الضعيفة، والتي أرغِمَت على التخلي عن استقلالها التجاري والمالي لصالح "المنطقة الاقتصادية الألمانية العظمى" أو نظيرتها لدى اليابان "مجال الرخاء المشترك لمنطقة شرق آسيا العظمى". ونتيجة للفظائع التي شهدتها فترة الثلاثينيات فما زالت الشكوك الضخمة تحيط بأفكار مثل "منطقة شرق آسيا الكبرى".

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