埃博拉病毒及更多

华盛顿——美国和欧洲面对各自境内出现的几起孤立的埃博拉感染个案反应严重过度。这些惊慌失措的反应还不仅仅是没有任何用处。因为违反了基本科学原理,这些举措挑战了强制公共卫生行动的基本道德准则。而且在保护民众免遭埃博拉感染(更不要说防止未来发生类似的全球性健康危机)的问题上——如此做法的效果可能适得其反。

过度反应最惊人的例子来自于美国,美国的第一反应是加强筛查来自几内亚、利比里亚和塞拉利昂的旅客。更成问题的是,某些州甚至对从埃博拉受灾国返回美国的志愿医疗工作者强制执行为期21天的隔离检疫政策。幸运的是,隔离检疫令所引发的政治风波很快迫使某些州长放宽了这项政策。

发达国家现在应当认识到保护民众免遭埃博拉病毒侵袭的最佳方法是协助阻止病毒在西非的传播。而这首先需要在埃博拉肆虐最严重的三个国家长期执行“强化反应”政策。上述反应政策必须得到充足(且大额的)资金支持;派遣训练有素的医生、护士和社区卫生工作者;并提高当地诊断、治疗、追踪接触者和隔离感染者的能力。

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