La opción Tito de Europa del este

LONDRES – Las historias de éxito en lo que la Unión Europea llama “el vecindario” no han sido fáciles. Primero Georgia, luego Ucrania y más recientemente Moldavia han sido grandes esperanzas de la UE. Pero, en cada caso, esas esperanzas se desvanecieron. Desafortunadamente para la UE, la cumbre anual de este año con Ucrania (el 22 de noviembre) probablemente ponga de manifiesto este fracaso.

Esa cumbre se produce en un momento auspicioso, cuando la UE revisa su Política del Vecindario Europeo (lanzada en 2004) y la Sociedad del Este (lanzada en 2009), en vísperas de una segunda gran cumbre en Budapest bajo la presidencia húngara de la UE en mayo de 2011. Pero Francia se ha demorado a la hora de facilitar los requerimientos de visado para los ucranianos, y los negociadores de la UE están frustrados ante la falta total de avance hacia el Acuerdo Profundo de Libre Comercio, por la que responsabilizan, con razón, a los “oligarcas” ucranianos que han regresado al poder desde que Viktor Yanukovich se convirtió en presidente en febrero.

Durante mucho tiempo, un problema fue la falta de entusiasmo de parte de la UE por una mayor expansión en la región. Más recientemente, la UE también tuvo que enfrentar la realidad de competir con Rusia en lo que el presidente Dmitri Medvedev llama la “esfera de intereses privilegiados” de Rusia. Cada vez más, sin embargo, el problema es con los propios estados de Europa del este.

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