Osteuropas Vogel-Strauß-Politik im Umgang mit HIV

CARDIFF, KALIFORNIEN – Etwa 90% der geschätzten 1,5 Millionen HIV-Infizierten in Mittel- und Osteuropa leben in Russland und in der Ukraine. Als ich diese Länder unlängst besuchte, waren trotz wiederholter Anfragen weder Politiker noch Vertreter des Gesundheitswesens zu einem Treffen mit mir bereit. Alle Anrufe, Faxe oder E-Mails, die ich nach meiner Rückkehr geschickt habe, sind unbeantwortet geblieben.

In beiden Ländern breiten sich die Epidemien vor allem unter injizierenden Drogenkonsumenten (IDU) aus, die Nadeln und Spritzen teilen – die wirksamste Weise HIV zu übertragen. Dennoch existieren bewährte Methoden, um die Ausbreitung von HIV unter injizierenden Drogenkonsumenten zu verlangsamen.

Wenn IDUs Heroin oder verwandte Opioide injizieren – wie es vorrangig in Osteuropa der Fall ist – kann die Einrichtung von opioidgestützten Substitutionsprogrammen mit Methadon oder Buprenorphin die HIV-Übertragung enorm verlangsamen. Der Erfolg solcher Programme hängt auch davon ab, an geeigneten Standorten Stellen einzurichten, an denen Nadeln/Spritzen getauscht werden können, um zum einen steriles Besteck zur Verfügung und zu stellen und zum anderen Konsumenten in das Gesundheitssystem einzubeziehen. Als dritte Säule sind injizierende Drogenkonsumenten auf Beratung angewiesen.

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