东欧的艾滋病鸵鸟政策

发自加利福尼亚的加地夫——目前整个中东欧地区大概有150万艾滋病感染者,其中90%分布在俄罗斯和乌克兰两国。在我最近对这两地的走访当中,尽管多次联系,没有一位当地政治家或者卫生官员愿意出面会见我,我回国后又尝试用电话,传真或者电子邮件等方式联系他们,但得到的依旧是沉默的回应。

这两个国家的艾滋病传播主要存在于注射吸毒者之间,而他们共享针头和注射器的行为是最容易传播艾滋病病毒的,但目前已经开发出有效的方式来减缓艾滋病在这类群体中的蔓延。

对于那些使用海洛因或者相关鸦片提取物的注射吸毒者(这是东欧面临的主要问题),服用美沙酮和丁丙诺啡 (buprenorphine)这类鸦片类物质替代物可以极大地减少艾滋病病毒的传播。此外这类抗感染项目的成功实施还有赖于在某些合适的地点建立针头/注射器更换点,一方面向吸毒者提供干净的用具,另一方面也方便将他们纳入到医疗卫生体系当中。为了更好地巩固这些措施,还需为吸毒者提供心理咨询服务。

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