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El regreso del autoritarismo a Europa del este

MADRID – La Unión Europea es un logro destacable de la política moderna. Sobre una base de valores compartidos, creó un espacio de paz, progreso y libertad que permitió dejar atrás enemistades nacionales enraizadas en décadas, o siglos, de conflicto. Pero el abismo político que se está abriendo entre los miembros orientales de la UE y los occidentales, junto con el resurgimiento del nacionalismo en todo el continente, enfrenta esos valores (y con ellos, el futuro de la integración europea) a la prueba más dura de su historia.

En Europa del este, la democracia se está volviendo cada vez más antiliberal. El primer caso fue Hungría bajo el primer ministro Viktor Orbán, que lleva seis años implementando su idea declarada de un “estado no liberal”. Ahora se le sumó Polonia: tras ganar las elecciones en octubre, el partido derechista Ley y Justicia, de Jarosław Kaczyński, lanzó una embestida para hacerse con el control de los medios de comunicación, la administración pública y el Tribunal Constitucional. La UE ya inició una investigación oficial sobre posibles violaciones a sus normas de Estado de Derecho.

El giro al autoritarismo en Europa del este fue acompañado por un abierto cuestionamiento de las cuotas de migrantes paneuropeas, cuyo objetivo es aliviar la enorme crisis de refugiados a la que se enfrenta Europa. Al mismo tiempo, solo el año pasado Alemania registró a alrededor de un millón de solicitantes de asilo.

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