L’exemple du Timor oriental

Manille - Le Timor oriental, aujourd’hui appelé Timor-Leste, est la plus jeune démocratie du monde. Sa population compte peut-être moins d’un million de personnes, mais elle possède une histoire fière et héroïque et une culture riche, bâtie sur des siècles d’influences ethniques et coloniales diverses. Cette île a attiré des commerçants chinois et malais au XVe siècle. Les Portugais sont arrivés peu de temps après, et sont restés pendant 400 ans. Elle attire l’attention sur elle aujourd’hui en tant que nation dont la construction est orchestrée par les Nations-unies.

La mission intégrée des Nations-unies au Timor-Leste (UNMIT), dirigée par Atul Khare, est constituée d’un personnel civil comptant 1 568 personnes, dont 334 volontaires, et d’un commissaire de police, Rodolfo Tor, accompagné de 1 623 policiers originaires de 39 pays. La tâche principale de l’UNMIT est ardue : orchestrer la réconciliation nationale. Des élections parlementaires ont été organisées dans le calme le 30 juin, mais une atmosphère d’appréhension prévaut depuis. Ni Fretilin, l’ancien parti au pouvoir, ni CNRT, le nouveau parti dirigé par Xanana Gusmão, héros de la résistance à l’occupation indonésienne, n’a remporté de nette majorité.

Tout d’abord, les Nations-Unies, comme beaucoup de Timorais, y compris José Ramos-Horta, président élu en mai dernier et lauréat du prix Nobel, ont espéré qu’un gouvernement d’unité nationale pourrait être constitué. Mais pendant un mois, les tentatives de négociation pour la mise en place d’un gouvernement intégrant tout le monde a échoué. Par conséquent, en août, Ramos-Horta a mis fin à l’impasse en faisant prêter serment à Gusmão, allié politique de longue date et ancien président, en tant que Premier ministre.

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