Fantasías nacionalistas en Extremo Oriente

TOKIO – No parecen gran cosa, unos pocos peñascos yermos en el Mar de China Oriental, entre Okinawa y Taiwán, y un par de diminutos islotes en el Mar de Japón en los que solo habitan unos pocos pescadores y algunos oficiales de la guardia costera surcoreana. El primer grupo de tierras, que en Japón llaman islas Senkaku y en China, islas Diaoyu, lo reclaman China, Japón y Taiwán; el segundo, Takeshima para los japoneses y Dokdo para los coreanos, está en litigio entre Corea del Sur y Japón.

Aunque estos diminutos afloramientos rocosos tienen poco valor material, la disputa sobre su pertenencia ha provocado un serio enfrentamiento internacional, con retiros de embajadores, masivas demostraciones antijaponesas en toda China (en las que se llegó a dañar a personas y propiedades japonesas) e intercambios de amenazas entre Tokio y Seúl. Incluso se habló de acciones militares.

A primera vista los hechos históricos son sencillos. Japón se apropió de las islas como parte de su proyecto de construcción imperial después de la guerra sinojaponesa de 1895 y la anexión de Corea en 1905. Antes de eso, la soberanía no está clara; en Takeshima/Dokdo había pescadores japoneses, y en China imperial se tenía algún conocimiento de las islas Senkaku/Diaoyu. Pero ningún estado había hecho reclamos formales.

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