Asia Oriental, atada a su pasado

TOKIO – Hace ya mucho que las relaciones diplomáticas en Asia Oriental están supeditadas a la historia. Pero el “problema histórico” de la región se intensificó los últimos tiempos, cuando el creciente nacionalismo de importantes actores regionales como China, Japón y Corea del Sur alimentó disputas por temas muy variados, desde territoriales y por los recursos naturales hasta cuestiones de monumentos de guerra y libros de texto escolares. ¿Podrán los países de Asia Oriental superar su pasado de conflictos y forjar un futuro compartido que beneficie a todos?

Tomemos por ejemplo la relación entre los más estrechos aliados que tiene Estados Unidos en la región: Japón y Corea del Sur. Aunque hace tiempo que los desacuerdos históricos dificultan los vínculos bilaterales, las posturas cada vez más nacionalistas del primer ministro japonés Shinzo Abe y de la presidenta surcoreana Park Geun-hye echaron más leña al fuego. Si estos países no se ponen de acuerdo para evitar que revivan amargas disputas históricas, su relación seguirá detenida en el tiempo, lo que beneficia a China.

Y a nadie le gusta tanto jugar la carta de la historia como a China, cuyo presidente Xi Jinping también usa el nacionalismo para legitimar su gobierno. El año pasado, China instituyó dos nuevos días de memoria nacional para conmemorar su larga lucha contra la agresión japonesa durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial: el “Día de la Victoria en la Guerra contra la Agresión Japonesa”, el 3 de septiembre, y el “Día de la Masacre de Nanjing”, el 13 de diciembre. ¿Qué pasaría si países como Vietnam y la India dedicaran días a recordar las agresiones chinas sufridas desde 1949?

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