early childhood education Charly Triballeau/Stringer

أهمية مرحلة ما قبل المدرسة

بيركيلي- إن التعليم المبكر عالي الجودة للإطفال هو من القضايا النادرة التي توحد جميع الفئات الإجتماعية والتوجهات السياسية ولكن هذا الإجماع على الفوائد –بالنسبة للإطفال والمجتمع- لا يشمل التنفيذ والتمويل . إن الأخبار الطيبة هي أنه مع تنفيذ مجموعة مذهلة من النماذج الجديدة فإن الدروس الجديدة تظهر عن كيفية تشكيل وتمويل وتقييم برامج التعليم المبكر المستقبلية .

ومن أجل فهم ما التي تحاول تلك النماذج تحقيقه فإن من المفيد النظر في العلم الذي يكمن وراءها. إن من الواضح بشكل متزايد بإن السنوات المبكرة من العمر هي حيوية لتنمية الدماغ حيث تحدث من 700 إلى ألف من الوصلات العصبية الجديدة كل ثانية خلال السنوات الثلاث الأولى من العمر. إن عدد الكلمات التي يسمعها الطفل خلال تلك الفترة المهمة للغاية لها تأثير كبير على قدراته العقلية المستقبلية .

لكن هناك تناقض كبير بين عدد الكلمات التي يسمعها أطفال الأباء المهنيين وأولئك الذين ينتمون لعائلات الطبقة العاملة–ثلاث ملايين سنويا في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية- وبينما تمتلك العائلات مرتفعة الدخل 12 كتاب لكل طفل فإن أكثر من نصف مراكز الرعاية النهارية للإطفال من ذوي الدخل المحدود لا تمتلك كتابا واحدا.

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