Un desarme disfuncional

GINEBRA - Cuando la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre Desarme comience una sesión de siete semanas en Ginebra, su futuro estará en juego. Mientras que hay en movimiento iniciativas de los países y la sociedad civil, la Conferencia se ha estancado. Su credibilidad - de hecho, su propia legitimidad - se encuentra en riesgo.

La "CD", como se la conoce informalmente, ha servido por largo tiempo como el único foro multilateral del mundo para la negociación sobre desarme. Entre sus muchos e impresionantes logros se incluyen las Convenciones sobre armas biológicas y químicas, el Tratado de no proliferación nuclear y el Tratado de prohibición completa de los ensayos nucleares. Muchos de de estos avances se lograron durante la Guerra fría, lo que demuestra que es posible crear normas jurídicas globales incluso en tiempos de profunda división política.

Sin embargo, en la actualidad no todo está bien en la CD. Opera bajo una regla de consenso, y sus Estados miembros tienen prioridades diferentes. Algunos quieren negociaciones sobre el desarme nuclear, mientras que otros desean prohibir la producción de material fisible para fines armamentistas, y aún otros insisten en que ese tratado debe abarcar también las existencias actuales. Algunos quieren un tratado sobre garantías de seguridad para los Estados no poseedores de armas nucleares que los protejan frente a la amenaza o el uso de armas nucleares; otros quieren un tratado para prevenir una carrera armamentista en el espacio exterior.

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