Désarmement Dysfonctionnel

GENÈVE – Alors que débute à Genève une session de sept semaines de la Conférence des Nations Unies sur le désarmement, son avenir semble compromis. Si les initiatives des pays et de la société civile sont en mouvement, la conférence reste paralysée. Sa crédibilité – sa réelle légitimité, même – est en danger.

La « CD », ainsi qu’elle est appelée de manière informelle, est depuis longtemps le seul forum multilatéral mondial pour les négociations sur le désarmement. Ses nombreux impressionnants succès comprennent, entre autres, les conventions sur les armes chimiques et biologiques, le traité de non-prolifération nucléaire et le traité d’interdiction complète des essais nucléaires. Nombres de ces progrès ont pu être obtenus pendant les années de guerre froide, prouvant ainsi qu’il est possible de créer des normes légales globales même en périodes de profondes divisions politiques.

Pourtant aujourd’hui, tout ne va pas si bien à la CD. Elle opère sous la règle du consensus, et ses états membres ont des priorités différentes. Certains veulent des négociations sur le désarmement nucléaire ; d’autres voudraient interdire la production de matière fissible pour l’armement ; et d’autres encore insistent sur le fait qu’un tel traité devrait aussi couvrir les stocks existants. Certains veulent un traité pour garantir la sécurité des états qui ne possèdent pas l’arme nucléaire afin de les protéger contre la menace ou l’utilisation de l’arme nucléaire ; d’autres voudraient un traité pour empêcher une course spatiale à l’armement.

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