Nefunkèní odzbrojení

ŽENEVA – V dobì, kdy Konference o odzbrojení Organizace spojených národù zahajuje v Ženevì své sedmitýdenní zasedání, se hraje o její budoucnost. Zatímco zemì a iniciativy obèanské spoleènosti jsou v pohybu, konference stagnuje. Její dùvìryhodnost – ba i samotná její legitimita – je v ohrožení.

„CD“, jak se konferenci neformálně říká, dlouho sloužila jako jediné multilaterální fórum pro jednání o odzbrojení na světě. Mezi mnoho jejích působivých úspěchů patří Konvence o biologických a chemických zbraních, Smlouva o nešíření jaderných zbraní nebo Smlouva o všeobecném zákazu jaderných zkoušek. Velká část tohoto pokroku byla dosažena během studené války, což dokazuje, že i v dobách hlubokého politického rozkolu lze vytvářet celosvětově platné právní normy.

Dnes však s CD není všechno v pořádku. Konference funguje na základě konsensu a její členské státy mají odlišné priority. Některé si přejí jednání o jaderném odzbrojení, jiné chtějí zakázat výrobu štěpných materiálů pro zbrojní účely a ještě jiné trvají na tom, že taková úmluva by se měla vztahovat i na existující arzenál. Některé země si přejí smlouvu o bezpečnostních zárukách pro nejaderné státy, aby je ujistily před hrozbou nebo použitím jaderných zbraní, zatímco jiné chtějí smlouvu bránící závodům ve zbrojení ve vesmíru.

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