Ethique et dopage

Quand les Jeux olympiques retrouveront leur berceau en Grèce cet été, les résultats des analyses de laboratoire pour détecter des traces de dopage seront sans doute scrutés avec autant d'attention que les événements qui se dérouleront sur le stade. L'histoire du dopage et de son contrôle lors des JO est décourageant, c'est un mélange de tricherie patronnée par l'Etat et de tentatives plus ou moins énergiques et aléatoires de faire respecter une réglementation pas toujours appropriée.

Le transfert des tests et du contrôle antidopage du Comité olympique international et des organismes nationaux à l'Agence mondiale antidopage (AMA) et à des organisations similaires au niveau national a éveillé récemment de nouveaux espoirs. Ainsi, l'Agence américaine de lutte antidopage (Usada) a joué un rôle central dans la découverte de l'utilisation d'un nouveau stéroïde de synthèse, le THG, lié à une société californienne de restauration pour les sportifs professionnels et les participants aux JO.

Mais ces espoirs seront déçus si nous ne prenons pas véritablement en compte le défi éthique qui se pose. Les interdictions sont condamnées à l'inefficacité si nous n'expliquons pas clairement ce qu'il y a de répréhensible dans le dopage. Il y a trois raisons fondamentales pour l'interdire : garantir à tous les athlètes des conditions de compétition équitables, préserver leur intégrité et sauvegarder ce qui donne au sport toute sa signification et sa valeur.

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