Paul Lachine

Покончить с еврозоной

НЬЮ-ЙОРК. Кризис еврозоны, кажется, достигает своего апогея; Греция на грани дефолта и постыдного выхода из валютного союза, а сейчас еще и Италия на грани потери доступа к рынку. Но проблемы еврозоны намного глубже. Они структурные, и на них сильно влияют, по крайней мере, четыре экономики: Ирландия, Португалия, Кипр и Испания.

В последнее десятилетие страны ПИИГИ (Португалия, Ирландия, Италия, Греция и Испания) были основными потребителями еврозоны и тратили больше, чем был их доход, способствуя, таким образом, увеличению дефицита текущего счета. Тем временем стержневые страны еврозоны (Германия, Нидерланды, Австрия и Франция) являлись основными производителями еврозоны и тратили меньше, чем был их доход, что увеличивало профицит их текущего счета.

Причиной такого внешнего дисбаланса была также прочность евро с 2002 года и отклонения в реальных процентных ставках и конкурентоспособности внутри самой еврозоны. Издержки на рабочую силу в единице продукции упали в Германии и в других основных странах (так как рост зарплаты отставал от роста производительности), что привело к реальному обесцениванию и повышению профицита текущего счета, одновременно обратное наблюдалось в странах ПИИГИ (и Кипре) и привело к повышению стоимости и увеличению дефицита текущего счета. В Ирландии и Испании частные сбережения уменьшились, а “пузырь” на рынке недвижимости стал причиной чрезмерного потребления, в то время как в Греции, Португалии, Кипре и Италии именно чрезмерный бюджетный дефицит обострил внешний дисбаланс.

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