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自由民主的双重威胁

坎布里奇—如今,自由民主危机饱受诘难。特朗普成为美国总统、英国的退欧投票,以及欧洲其他国家民粹主义者在选举中的崛起,与“反自由民主”所带来的威胁遥相呼应——后者是一种极权主义政治,标榜群众选举,但丝毫不尊重法治和少数群体的权利。

但较少有分析师指出,反自由民主——或民粹主义——并不是唯一的政治威胁。自由民主还因为一个为强调“自由”不惜牺牲“民主”的趋势的破坏。在这种政治中,统治者通过一整套全面的政策约束,来彻底摆脱民主问责。

政治理论家亚查·芒克(Yascha Mounk)在其重要新著《人民与民主》(The People vs. Democracy)中将这类体制——它们与反自由民主构成了恰当的对称——“反民主自由”。他指出,我们的政治体制早已不再像自由民主那样运作,而日益类似于反民主自由。

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