Putin on defender of the motherland day Sasha Mordovets/Getty Images

Donald Trump e le sfide della politica estera

CAMBRIDGE – Durante la sua campagna, il neoeletto presidente americano Donald Trump ha messo in dubbio le alleanze e le istituzioni che sostengono l’ordine mondiale liberale, ma è entrato nel merito di poche politiche specifiche. Forse l’interrogativo più importante sollevato dalla sua vittoria è se questa prolungata fase di globalizzazione, cominciata alla fine della seconda guerra mondiale, si sia di fatto conclusa.

Non necessariamente. Anche se accordi commerciali come il Partenariato Trans-Pacifico e il Partenariato Transatlantico per il commercio e gli investimenti dovessero fallire e la globalizzazione economica rallentare, la tecnologia sta promuovendo una globalizzazione sul piano ecologico, politico e sociale che assume le forme del cambiamento climatico, del terrorismo transnazionale e dell’immigrazione, che piaccia a Trump oppure no. L’ordine mondiale riguarda molto più della sola economia, e gli Stati Uniti continuano a essere fondamentali per il suo mantenimento.    

Noi americani tendiamo spesso a male interpretare il nostro posto nel mondo. Oscilliamo tra trionfalismo e declinismo. Dopo che i sovietici lanciarono il satellite Sputnik nel 1957, credevamo di essere in declino. Negli anni ottanta, pensavamo che i giapponesi fossero dei giganti. All’indomani della Grande Recessione del 2008, molti americani hanno erroneamente creduto che la Cina fosse diventata più potente degli Stati Uniti.   

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