Jusqu’où les dirigeants mondiaux sont-ils prêts à aller pour trouver des solutions au changement climatique ?

ABIDJAN – Que faut-il pour provoquer une réaction mondiale à une menace mondiale ? La crise financière de 2008 et les menaces d’insurrection et de terrorisme que nous connaissons en 2014 sont considérées comme « des dangers évidents et actuels », non par une personne isolée mais par tout un chacun ; et elles ont provoqué une réaction à l’échelle mondiale.

Pendant ce temps, le changement climatique et les effets dévastateurs des émissions de carbone constituent des menaces plus graves et à plus long terme. Et pourtant, depuis 30 ans, ils ne suscitent qu’une faible réaction mondiale. Le Secrétaire général des Nations Unies a convié les dirigeants du monde entier à participer au premier sommet des dirigeants mondiaux qui se tiendra à New York la semaine prochaine.  L’objectif de la rencontre étant de prendre des mesures pour lutter contre un phénomène planétaire qui nécessite  leur intervention collective.

Le monde se perd en arguties politiques sur le changement climatique depuis assez longtemps. Les impératifs électoraux ou économiques immédiats ne changeront jamais rien au fait que le réchauffement climatique aura des conséquences aussi néfastes pour les pays riches qu’il en a déjà pour les pays pauvres. Il est flagrant que le monde n’a pas donné une suite satisfaisante au Protocole de Kyoto de 2005 : il émet actuellement davantage de gaz à effet de serre que jamais au cours de l’Histoire. Nous discutons de la nécessité de maintenir le réchauffement climatique sous la barre des 2 degrés Celsius ; mais le Groupe d’experts intergouvernemental sur l’évolution du climat nous a fait savoir l’année dernière que nous étions en route pour une augmentation des températures moyennes, entre 3,7 °C et 4,8 °C d’ici à la fin du siècle.

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